نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
2 استاد رشته زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
عنوان مقاله [English]
Historians and readers of the history of literature always look for original material and documents in history. That is why the works of the authors who write about their contemporaries and their age have always been more important and valid. Considering the significance of contemporaneous writing in the history of literature, this article examines the method of contemporaneous writing in Majales al-Nafayes as the earliest period tadhkirah in Iran. Thus, the account which Amir Alishir Nawai has provided about his contemporary poets has been analyzed. In our analysis, we have drawn on some components in the ‘prosopography’ method. The study shows that the component that gives this work an important dimension is the authorial element. The significance of this element is to such extent that if it is removed from the work, the whole structure would be impaired. The conclusion made by the present study is that Amir Alishir Nawai’s contemporaneous writing is ‘author-centered’. In addition to writing of contemporary poems and the registration of contemporary poets, Nawai had other motivations in this work, for example, the stabilization of himself as a pioneering cultural figure in Herat, and the stabilization of the cultural-literary currents of that era.
Historians and audiences of history have always looked for the original sources of historical accounts. Therefore, works by writers who have been contemporary with the events or people they have written about are of greater significance and have, thus, attracted much attention. Aware of the importance of works by contemporary writers, the present article studies the contemporary writing methods utilized in Majales al-Nafayis, as the first contemporary tadhkirah (contemporary biography) in Iranian history. This work, written in the 15th century by Amir Alishir Navayi, is one of the greatest works influencing the tradition of writing tadhkirah.
2. Theoretical Framework
Prosopography, or collective biography, deals with external features of a group of people who have some characteristics in common – such as a profession or social status. Depending on the purpose of the researcher, these people are studied as a group with common characteristics and features. The present study uses the principles of prosopography to identify the reasons as to why certain individuals have been included in Majales al-Nafayis.
The present article draws on prosopography to explain the components that Navayi has employed to describe his contemporary figures and events. The most important of these components are temporality, spatiality and relationship networks.
The present study reveals that temporality, spatiality, and relationship networks play an important role in this work and are closely related to the author of the book. The author plays a great role here and if the work is separated from its creator, the whole structure of the work will disintegrate. In other words, the author forms the whole structure of the book and relates its different parts closely to one another. Moreover, by creating this work, he forms a literary circle, with himself as its main figure.
It can be concluded from this study that Navayi’s work is author-centered. While writing about important events of the time and his contemporary poets, Navayi has other motivations in writing this tadhkirah. For example, it can be inferred from the book that the author primarily aims to stabilize his position as the most prominent cultural figure of Herat and also continue the literary and cultural trends of the time.