نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دانشیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
As the first home of the Aryan race, Transoxiana has continuously occupied an important place in the history of Persian literature. After the formation of the Safavid state in Iran and the Shaybanids in Uzbakan in Bukhara in the 15th century, the two regions started to have different political fates. However, until the occupation of the region by the Russians in the 19th century, cultural relations of the peoples on both sides of the Amu Darya continued more or less. The enlightenment movement began under Russian occupation of the region (1870-1905), and gained further momentum with the modernizers (1905-1917). In parallel with the victory of the communists, the modernizers showed inclination towards this party in order to achieve their goals. With the formation of the five Soviet republics, the Tajiks gained power over the Khanat region (1924). For nearly seven decades, they produced literary works in the context of Soviet literature. But with independence (1991), they re-embraced their motherland. The main aim of this study is to examine the periodization of Tajik poetry from the beginning of the enlightenment movement to the independence of the region in the light of the theory of literary history. In this respect and after examining the existing periodizations and critique of their intellectual foundations, the present author’s model is put forward. This model can have direct impact on the writing of contemporary Tajik poetry, and can play a crucial role in introducing its heritage to the Persian speakers of the world.
As the first homeland of the Aryans, Transoxiana has played a prominent role in the history of Persian literature. After the formation of the Safavid government in Iran and the Shaybanids in Uzbakan in Bukhara in the 15th century, the two regions started to have different political fates, and with the occupation of the region by the Russian tsar in the 19th century, the cultural relations of peoples on both sides of the Amu Darya discontinued. The enlightenment movement arose following Russia’s occupation of the region (1870-1905), and was later promoted by the modernists (1905-1917), when communist parties gained victory. With the establishment of five Soviet republics in the region, the Tajiks formed their own government (1924).
2. Theoretical Framework
The present study aims to classify and analyze developments in Tajik literature in Central Asia in the years 1870-2015 through the periodization of contemporary Tajik poetry. In other words, the periods of Persian language and literature in Central Asia and Tajikistan as well as their characteristics are examined in this study. It is assumed that by relying on the external (historical changes) and the internal factors of contemporary Tajik literary legacy, one can categorize contemporary Tajik literature into eight periods with distinct characteristics.
This study uses the periodization model to analyze and categorize Tajik contemporary literature, and for this purpose both external and internal approaches are considered in the literary analysis. A distinctive feature of this model is that the periodization is protected against any biased or undesirable impact.
4. Findings and Discussion
The previous periodizations offered in the Soviet era were mostly under the intellectual influence of the 1917 Revolution and the intellectual and cultural systems derived from Bolshevism. Lenin developed this model for the first time, using Marx's idea of “the right of nations to self-determination” to consolidate the Revolution. Iran and its literature had almost no influence on the formation of the Soviet literature in terms of content at the time of Lenin and Stalin as Iran's inclination to the West and capitalism created a major obstacle for bilateral collaboration between Iran and this region. This obstacle became even more insurmountable with the change of the Persian language handwriting into Latin (1929) and later to Cyrillic (1940). Abolqasem Lahouti, who migrated to Tajikistan in 1925, promoted the same idea, though his role in preserving the national language of the Persian speakers should not be downplayed. After Stalin's death, there was a gradual return to traditions, as a result of which a limited literary and cultural relationship was formed between the two countries, which developed further at Gorbachev’s time and in the independence era. In this period, contemporary Iranian literature attracted Tajik audience and influenced the taste of the Persian poets of the region.
Contemporary Tajik literature has undergone eight periods of development from intellectualism to independence (1870-2015). Attempts toward enlightenment and modernism can be regarded as most important feature of the first two periods of modern Tajik literature. In these periods, the emerging Persian language was influenced by the changes in the Persian speaking world. It was renamed to Tajik in the Soviet era and was significantly influenced by folklorism; it also experienced new ways by benefitting from the experience of its counterparts in Iran and Russia. In the period of independence, Tajik literature gained national and historical self-awareness. Considering the external and internal factors influencing literary periodization, our model can be presented as follows:
1. Intellectualism/Enlightenment (1870-1905);
2. Modernism (1905-1917);
3. The emergence of Soviet literature (1917-1919);
4. The development and consolidation of Soviet literature (1953-1929);
5. Decline in Soviet literature and gradual return to tradition (1953-1985);
6. Awakening and freedom (1991-1993);
7. Independence and national self-awareness (1991-2015);
8. Independence and doubt (2015 to the present).