نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استاد، گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه ارومیه
2 دانشآموخته دکتری، رشته زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه ارومیه
عنوان مقاله [English]
Biography is a written account of the dimensions of a historical figure’s life. Therefore, it is now regarded as one of the main and effective components in the fields of literary and historical studies. Considering the various patterns and methods used to write biographies among different nations, one can pose the following questions: What principles and rules are biographies based on, and what categories are they required to consider in the domains of epistemology and ontology? What scientific place and stylistic features do mystical biographies have? And what sources and types of knowledge are used in the writing and concretization of these kinds of biographies? In this study of the methodology of mystical biographies, we have reviewed Tadhkirat al-Awliya,one of the most prominent texts of mystical prose. As a response to the above-mentioned question, we have tried to provide a general overview of the literary, mystical, and historical nature of this work by utilizing new literary theories and analyzing its vast epistemic dimensions. Moreover, we have explained the role of biographical principles and how they are used by Attar in formulating literary and mystical propositions.
Islamic mysticism revolves around the individual and social conduct of human beings. Mystical biographies in Islamic literature were originally written in Arabic and developed in a systematic way. Then, as a result, this kind of biography found its way into Persian literature. Using a limited number of his narrative elements, Attar chose elements that would help him make the different stages and hierarchy of mysticism reasonable to the readers. Tadhkiratal-Awliya is a valuable mystical-literary work in which the teachings and details of the mystical life of the great figures of Islamic mysticism are explained. The narration and power of expression, the spirituality governing the text, and Attar's mystical interpretations and perceptions of the attitudes and conduct of the awliya are among the elements that reconstruct the story of the awliya.
2. Theoretical Framework
Biography is a written account of different dimensions of the lives of historical figures. In the present article new literary theories are employed to analyze the structures and principles of biography writing. Attar describes the lives of the awliya in the form of short narratives in special narrative forms. While the new rules of biography writing are followed, Attar pays special attention to the moral and emotaional apsects of the awliya.
The present study employs the qualitative content analysis method to analyze different aspects of the writer’s mind. First, Tadhkiratal-Awliya is examined as a biographical work using specific approaches in literary criticism. Then, the fundamental concepts of the book are analyzed and the structural and epistemological rules are explained.
In Tadhkiratal-Awliya propositions containing profound epistemic and mystical meanings are closely intertwined with the literary language. Attar relies on intuition to recreate the mystical states and experience. He depicts the conduct of characters skillfully such that there is a causal relationship between the elements, and events occur in a specific time sequence. He connects seemingly unrelated mystical ideas, sometimes by identifying himself with the characters, in a way that they seem quite reasonable to the readers.
We have tried to provide a general overview of the literary, mystical, and historical nature of Tadhkiratal-Awliya by employing new literary theories and analyzing different epistemic dimensions of this work. Thus, attempt has been made to explain the role of autobiographical principles, and how they are used by Attar, in formulating literary and mystical propositions. To recreate mystical states and experiences Attar mostly draws on intuition and persistence in different mystical moments. He uses his powerful expression, which dervies from his mystical experience and observation, in his literary expression and thus makes the lives and mental states of the saints understandable.