عنوان مقاله [English]
Feminists consider the definition of ‘woman’ in the social systems not as her real recognition but as the imposed identification of patriarchal hegemonic culture. To find a way out, feminists invite women to seek ‘self-differentiation’ and ‘independence’. From different feministic perspectives, the ‘self-differentiation’ theory takes different definitions ranging from matriarchy and the single-gender utopia to intuitive isolation; however, the goal and meaning of all ‘self-differentiation’ theories is to help remove the images and perceived conceptions of women, in order for them to achieve the true ontology of their agency. Adopting an analytical-descriptive method, this paper examines the reasons and results of feminine independence in Mar’ashi’s novel based on feminist attitudes. It argues that although the isolation of the women in this novel is like an arbitrary punishment or exile, but, at least for the main character, Naval, it leads to peace of mind, agency, harmony and unity with the universal elements which result from an intuitive journey, i.e., the point which is central to self-differentiation theory.
Freud believes that a person can develop a healthy personality if they have successfully overcome their dependence on the “other” when growing to adulthood. Otherwise, unhealthy dependence and other types of personality flaws can be detected in individuals. Feminists have applied the same attitude to women’s independence from men and believe that for women to prosper and attain self-actualization, they need to be independent from men. Mar’ashi’s novel Haras (Pruning) is an account of women’s excessive dependence on men and their forced differentiation from them following the eruption of the war, which results in their independence and actualization of their agency. In this article the stages of women’s independence is analyzed based on this feminist view.
2. Theoretical Framework
The feminist theory of self-differentiation, mostly based on psychological and existential ideas, emphasizes the necessity of bringing about changes in the presumptions of the gender-based culture. In the present article, Mar’ashi’s Haras is analyzed based on the main components of the feminist self-differentiation.
The present article uses the content analysis method to analyze the reasons for and results of women’s independence in Haras. For this purpose, feminist ideas from the theory of differentiation have been drawn upon.
Losing all the men who supported her in the eight-year war, the main character of the story feels depressed and desperate. She tries to find a ‘man’ to provide her with support and care. She exchanges her daughter with a boy; a decision that makes her leave her family and move to a new neighborhood, which is a community of women without men where she attains happiness, independence and self-confidence.
Female self-differentiation occurs in this novel when the main character moves into a place exclusively populated by women. In this place, which is a matriarchic society dominated by feminine culture without the intervention of men in the years following the war, the main character of the novel is able to take a spiritual journey and attain a true understanding of herself. From a passive individual, she turns into a dynamic character and gains her agency by positively affecting the environment.