نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه فرانسه دانشگاه اصفهان
2 استادیار گروه ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه پیام نور خوانسار
عنوان مقاله [English]
The story of “Pir-e Changi” (“The Old Harpist”) is an tale with a mystical theme in the first book of Rumi’s Masnavi. There are a number of similarities in terms of form and content between this story and the story of “Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame” (“The Juggler of Notre-Dame”) written by the great French writer Anatole France. The tale of “Le Jongleur de Notre-Dame” was adapted from a medieval legend by Gautier de Coincy, a French poet who lived in the Middle Ages. The main character of France’s story is a juggler named Barnabé who in many ways resembles the old harpist, the main character of Rumi’s “Pir-e Changi”. The present article, which has been conducted through content analysis, employs Jungian archetypes as unconscious motifs to examine and compare these two characters to provide a model for the self-actualized individual based on the humanistic psychological principles proposed by Abraham Maslow. This study also investigates the extent to which the protagonists of the two stories comply with the characteristics of the self-actualized individual offered by Maslow. Moreover, the paper addresses the extent to which the role of society and its governing worldview as an effective factor in the psychological development of individuals applies to the protagonists of the two stories. Furthermore, the article attempts to show the degree to which the old harpist has been able to gain the satisfaction of God through overcoming his passions and asks whether the juggler has been able to attain spiritual excellence.
“Pir-e Changi” (“The Old Harpist”), one of the best-known stories of Rumi’s Masnavi, is similar both in structure and content to France’s “The Juggler of Notre Dame”. The present article compares these two works based on Abraham Maslow’s humanistic psychology. In both stories, the main characters go through crucial stages as a result of events occurring throughout their lives, which affect their existential self and make them mock the rules and regulations of society.
2. Theoretical Framework
Mythological criticism, also known as archetypal criticism, relies on the ideas of Carl Yung and emphasizes the recurrent universal patterns commonly found in most literary works. These patterns have affected human thinking and created patterns that symbolize manifestations of humanism. Relying on humanistic psychology, the present article offers a comparative analysis of “Pir-eChangi” and “The Juggler of Notre Dame”.
The methodology in this study is library-based and draws on content analysis. Jungian archetypes have been used to compare and analyze the two main characters of these two stories in order to offer a model of the self-actualized human based on Abraham Maslow’s ideas.
The main characters in these two stories decide to retire into solitude in order to think and pray, an experience that is common among most self-actualized people. They also both succeed in developing their inner self to its full potential and achieve a profound understanding of God.
“Pir-e Changi” and “The Juggler of Notre Dame” are similar in terms of elements such as theme, characterization and plot. The main characters in both stories go through a lot of hardship and finally turn to God and spirituality. Thus, both characters fit Maslow’s concept of the self-actualized peson. The Jungian archetypes make this transition more prominent. Pir-e Changi symbolizes the spiritual aspect of the human unconscious. And in Anatole France’s story, it is the head of the monastery that provides the juggler with the opportunity to move toward perfection.