نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشگاه گنبدکاووس، گنبدکاووس، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Deterritorialization and territorialization, key dichotomies in the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, have emerged from within their philosophy of immanence. Deterritorialization is an escape from the territory with a body of fixed and definite principles, and it rejects any ideological and predetermined contracts. Territorialization, on the other hand, has a transcendental character that always desires “being.” Relying on the theory of deterritorialization, the present paper seeks to answer the question whether contemporary Persian poetry as the deterritorialization of classical poetry is still deterritorial in its approach to fundamental binary oppositions. The study of contemporary poetry shows that the deterritorialization of classical poetry is absolute and positive, and the internal divisions of modern poetry indicate its fertility and dynamism. Nevertheless, it has a territorialist approach in some political and social traditions that have reciprocated in the historical process. Nima Yushij territorially prefers the countryside to the city and poetry to philosophy. Akhavan Sales and Naderpour prefer the Persians to the Arabs. In a transcendental manner, these oppositions tend to maintain territory in a definite direction because centrifugal lines and deterritorial processes have remained closed to conceptual reconfiguration in the works of these poets.
Territory can be defined as a space with specific borders under specific ownership. Grosz believes that “territory frames chaos provisionally, and in the process produces extractable qualities, which become the materials and formal structures of art.” According to Deleuze, territorialization, both as physical and intellectual concepts, leads to monopolization and stagnation, while deterritorialization rejects any ideological and predetermined contracts.
Theoretically, the present article revolves around territorialization and deterritorialization as key concepts in Deleuzian philosophy. Deterritorialization occurs when a subject or phenomenon escapes from its territory. The two notions of movement and escape are among the main elements of Delueze and Guattari’s deterritorialization. The present study draws on the theory of deterritorialization to find out whether contemporary poetry, as the deterritorialization of ancient poetry, is still deterritorial in its approach to binary oppositions.
The present article has adopted a descriptive-analytical methodology. Data has been collected using the library research method. First, territorialization and deterritorialization have been explained based on Deleuze’s philosophical theories. Then, contemporary poetry has been analyzed based on the concepts of territorialization and deterritorialization.
4.Discussion and Analysis
NimaYushij deterritorializes classical Persian poetry by introducing she'r-e noe (i.e., “new poetry”). His poetry, as poetry deterritorialized of classical poetry, leads to movements in Persian literature that are based on principles of movement and connection. Although he tried to break free of all the constraints of classical poetry, at times he had to follow some traditions in Persian classical poetry. His criticism of philosophy is an example of his territorial method, resulting in his finding literature superior to philosophy.
In its totality, she'r-e noe can be explained through the absolute deterritorialization of classical Persian poetry. This is because this kind of poetry never returned to classical poetry and developed no similarities to it. Dynamism and change are among the main components of contemporary Persian poetry, making it possible for different forms of contemporary poetry to develop. Despite the deterritorial quality of contemporary poetry, traces of territorialization can be seen in some political, intellectual and social positions taken in contemporary poetry. Attaching more importance to the countryside rather than the city, and poetry rather than philosophy in NimaYushij’s poetry are instances of territorialization.
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